By Allan Falk

Submitted to Jean-Claude Verrecchia / Gunnar Pedersen

in fulfilment of the requirements for the module

BDBS320 Extended Essay


NewboldCollege in partnership with the University of Wales Lampeter



































Apostolic Authority and Spiritual Giftedness within the Third Wave Charismatics Questioned


A conflict within the AdventistChurch in the west has become recognisable.[1] Part of the young generation is looking for a more Spirit filled Christian life and mission, as the rest of the Christian world they want to see Gods power in action. They want a straight forward proof, showing that the Church has authority and that they are baptised in the Holy Spirit. To realise their wishes they have, in the spirit of postmodernism, drunk from foreign wells, not only Adventist wells. The result is that their theological worldview is in the process of being altered.

        The challenge is that a growing number of the young members now expect to see the workings of the first Apostles or even Jesus within the congregation, which is not easily acceptable to the more established or conservative part of the church.

        Therefore the question this paper seeks to answer is: To what degree could it be true to say, that the apostolic authority claimed and the spiritual gifts experienced within the Third Wave Charismatics is a re-manifestation of the apostolic authority and giftedness?

        The purpose is therefore to provide an answer to a question asked by many. The study is significant because a clearer picture of what kind of authority leaders or members might assume and what kind of manifestations Christians should expect from the Holy Spirit in our modern times would enable the church, to create more unity in its diverse congregation.

        The limit of this research has been set to a comparison of two third wave evangelists; the American evangelist John Wimber and the Danish evangelist Christian Hedegaard, and John 13, 31-17, 26 and Acts 1 and 2. Other biblical texts my be consulted were appropriate. The challenge of I Cor 12 -14 is therefore not dealt with.


First the roots of the PentecostalChurch will be described historically and theologically and the three waves identified. Thereafter the Vineyard Fellowship and the Evangelist will be placed within the third wave.[2]

        Secondly there will be an analysis of Whimber’s and Hedegaard’s theology concerning Apostolic Authority and the Spiritual Gifts. As the writings of the two evangelists contain not only theological teaching, but also large parts of narratives about their ministry, this analysis will build on both.

The third part will be an analysis based on exegesis done on relevant texts from John 14 to 17 and Acts 1 and 2. This analysis will identify a biblical view on Spiritual Gifts and Apostolic Authority.

        In the fourth part I will compare / contrast the results from the study of Wimber’s and Hedegaard’s theology, with the findings from the biblical study.

 Historical roots of third wavers

John Wesley’s conversion in 1738 in London resulted in several revivals being the founding factor of several new Christian movements and denominations.[3] During his life long service as an Anglican priest he was a reformer and the founding father of the Methodist movement in England and the Methodist Church in America.[4] Wesley send his first missionaries to America in 1769 and the Methodist Episcopal Church was formed in 1784.[5]

        The next step was the Holiness movement with the Methodist church as the first Holiness church.[6] An important figure behind this Holiness movement was in addition to Wesley the first professional evangelist in America, Charles G. Finney. Finny was influenced by a revivalist tradition, which can be traced back to Jonathan Edwards.[7] One of the most instrumental persons in this Holiness movement was a woman named Phoebe Palmer, she not only taught but she also took part in developing the new theology.[8] This Holiness movement ended up fragmenting into more than a score of different denominations.[9] One of these new denominations The Fire-Baptized Holiness Church was very instrumental ‘in producing the climate of thought and doctrinal interpretation, which later produced the Pentecostal movement.’[10]

        In 1901 the young Agnes Ozman a student at Parham’s Bible school, became the first Pentecostal of the 20th century as she was baptized in the Holy Spirit and received the gift of tongues.[11] William Seymour another theological student of Parham later travelled to Los Angeles, where he began the Azusa street revival, which was sought by many.[12] This revival became the beginning of the Pentecostal movement resulting in several different denominations, also called the classical Pentecostal movement or the first wave.

        The second wave came as Pentecostalism penetrated all the protestant and Catholic churches in the nineteenth sixties, with what is also called the charismatic renewal.[13]

        The third wave began in a classroom at Fuller Theological seminary in 1981 under the teaching of John Wimber. These so called third wavers with their experience of signs and wonders, soon became a worldwide movement with almost 300 million members.[14] It is within the scope of this neo-charismatic movement we find the two evangelists John Wimber and Christian Hedegaard.

        After this brief historical overview, I will provide a brief description of the theological developments, within the charismatic movements. It should be mentioned that the theological diversity and developments from Wesley to the present day Third Wavers, is so complex that it could require a study of its own.

        Wesley’s inspirational sources were Anglo-Catholic and Arminian. This distanced him from the Calvinistic doctrine of election implying that only chosen people can be saved.[15] With the possibility of salvation within reach of everybody, Wesley began a revival striving for sanctification of both the church and the individual. When Wesley’s perfectionism was blended with American revivalism, the right blend was in place for the puritan and pietistic Holiness movement to come.[16]

        Most of the theological debate or development centred around two issues, sanctification and the baptism in the Holy Spirit. Following conversion Wesley saw sanctification as a ‘second work of grace’.[17] John Fletcher the successor of Wesley doubted this theology as early as 1770; he thought that the baptism in the Holy Spirit should be different.[18] Finny and Palmer identified this second work as the baptism in the Holy Spirit.[19] Much later in the 1890’s R. C. Horner saw the baptism in the Holy Spirit as a third work or blessing. Finally Durham introduced the finished work theology, claiming that conversion and sanctification took place at the same time.[20]  

        Due to this development Pentecostalism began with five elements in their gospel: Salvation, sanctification, healing, and baptism in the Holy Spirit and the pre-millennial return of Jesus. After 1910 it was reduced to a fourfold gospel including the themes of salvation, healing, baptism in the Holy Spirit and the return of Christ.[21] Furthermore it seems that there also was a shift in emphasis from sanctification to Spiritual Gifts; from fruits of the Spirit to signs and wonders. Wesley’s role model was the pre-Constantine church, whereas the Pentecostal role model was the first apostolic church.[22]

        Ever since Ozman spoke in tongues, the tongues have been a part of Pentecostalism. For some it was seen as a necessary proof of baptism in the Holy Spirit, for others it has been optional.[23] In the first wave it was crucial; in the third wave it is less important.

        During Seymour’s meetings in Azusa Street a lot of spiritual manifestations took place; many saw it as the workings of the Holy Spirit, but others saw it as demonic; this difference is still prevailing.[24]

        Healing has always been an integrated part of Pentecostalism and can be traced back to at least Parham. ‘Just as John Wesley taught the possibility of entire cleansing from sin, Parham taught “entire cleansing from disease” within the experience of sanctification.’[25]

        With this brief description the scene is set for the analysis of John Wimber’s and Christian Hedegaard’s theology.

 Analysis of Wimber’s and Hedegaard’s Theology in Relation to

Apostolic Authority and Spiritual Gifts

John Wimber

To understand the use of spiritual gifts within the Vineyard Christian Fellowship, I read the following of Wimber’s books: The Dynamics of Spiritual Growth, Power Evangelism and Power Healing. The first book portrays the development of a person from a non believer to a real disciple and the last two deals extensively with extraordinary gifts. The analysis will be done in relation to the last two books.

        In Power Evangelism Wimber tells how he sees the work of Jesus as first proclamation and then demonstration.[26] Furthermore he portrays how the Christian is to be equipped for the same work of both proclamation and demonstration.   

        In Power Healing Wimber deals practically with the notion, that Christians are called to heal the sick, just as well as they are called to evangelise.[27]

            The following list shows how many times the different gifts have been identified as active in the Vineyard ministry according to the two books chosen for analysis:

Spiritual Gifts

Power Evangelism

Power Healing













Casting out demons



Raising of the dead



        The task is now to describe how the Vineyard Christian Fellowship uses the spiritual gifts; how they are manifested. It will be done on the basis of events described by Wimber himself.

        Wimber did not give many examples of the practice of tongues, so it is easy to summarise:

1) It can be given to someone praying as a sign, that he or she received the Holy Spirit.[39]

2) It can be given to someone sleeping, as a part of a dream convincing the person of a certain truth.[40] 

3) It can come as an evangelistic tool helping to convert an atheist over night.[41]

4) Wimber uses it as an antenna when he wishes to receive a message from God.[42] In brief it may come as a sign after the reception of the Holy Spirit; as a strong convincing tool or it works as a spiritual antenna. Therefore useful for both believers and unbelievers.

        Words of knowledge are for Wimber basically private and intimate information about a person revealed supernaturally for the benefit of another person. This can take the following forms:

1) Suddenly it is revealed to an evangelist, that a particular person is ready for salvation.[43]

2) Sins of a particular person often sexual are revealed to an evangelist to enhance his evangelistic effort.[44]

3) Sometimes details related to the life of a sick or demon possessed person is revealed, so that more appropriate prayers can be made during the process of healing or the casting out of demons.[45] 4) At times the spirit helps the healing evangelist to identify a particular person in a congregation with a particular sickness, because the spirit wants to heal that person.[46] Basically knowledge is given as an aid to more effective prayers or to make the evangelistic effort more convincing.

        Wimber does not use the word prophetic very often, so I am now dealing mainly with messages, which can come in different ways and have different purposes:

1) The most frequent use of the messages concept is God speaking to or with Wimber.[47]

2) God instructs a healer to perform a certain act towards a patient, for example to slap him or maybe transfer tears from one person to another.[48]

3) At times God tells a healer that he want to heal a certain person through him or her.[49]

4) Sometimes God gives a message to a particular person through another person.[50]

5) A message of encouragement can also be sent through the worship leader, to an unknown person within a congregation.[51] In all instances it is basically God speaking to a human being.

        Concerning healing, Wimber has a highly developed theory and practice. The healings can in practice occur anywhere, but it is most likely to be in a vineyard meeting during ministry and prayer time. The words connected to a healing can be uttered in three different ways, as a prayer, a command or a pronouncement.[52] The simplest process would be like this; the hands are put on a sick person, a prayer is said and the person is healed.[53] But more complicated healings can also occur where God reveals the source of the problem and then prompts the healer to command the sickness to leave. The result might be partial healing, followed by a process in which the patient confesses his or her sins. Finally more prayer can be conducted to enhance the healing process.[54] Variations seem endless, as for example when God points out a particular person in a congregation for healing.[55] The most interesting part in relation to the process of healing, which can take quite some time, is that God is often leading the stages giving words of knowledge. First he might tell the healer something about the sick person’s problem or sin, then he might force the healer to utter a certain command or tell him or her to perform a certain act toward the patient.

        Casting out demons from a person can according to the narratives of Wimber be a very difficult task. First there might be an argument between the healer and the demon, and then the demon can be told to release the person. When the person is free to speak the person might ask for help, after which more demons might be told to identify themselves and subsequently too be cast out. Finally the free person can repent of sins and receive Christ.[56] The most peculiar about the process is that it seems to require much manpower and several arguments, much prayer and a lot of time.

       Wimber have not been involved in raising the death, so he is only able to refer to the experience of others. For that reason I will leave it out of this exercise.

        When it comes to acquiring the spiritual gifts, Wimber plainly states that his model of integrated healing has been developed through a process of trial and error.[57] Although Wimber refer to his own involvement in healing and God’s anointing for healing, his main theme is training for healing.[58] He takes his model in Jesus training the disciples and the disciples training the next generation of mission workers.[59] According to Wimber, ‘Christ’s method of training was rabbinic, more oriented towards learning a way of life through doing, than through accumulation of knowledge about God.’[60] Concerning the gift of knowledge, Wimber narrates instances where it came to people as a surprise,[61] but he also tells that he has prayed for people to get the gift.[62] It seems to boil down to instances where God just gives the gift, to situations where the gift was prayed for and finally to a lot of training.

        Concerning the usage of gifts, the foundation for Wimber’s ministry is the notion that God has given us the authority to do the works of Jesus.[63] This means that we are commissioned to evangelise and given authority to heal sickness and drive out demons.[64] Wimber sees healing to be deliverance from both sin and sickness.[65] This authority over the enemy is far reaching, as it includes all areas where the devil shows his face, be it in sickness, demon possession or disasters in nature.[66] Finally it is noteworthy, that Wimber do not know of any successful healer who does not speak in tongues.[67]

 Christian Hedegaard

To understand the use of spiritual gifts within the mission of the Evangelist, I read the following of Hedegaard’s books: Manden med Vandkrukken[68], Ånd og Ild[69]and Sejr over Dæmoner.[70] The first book portrays the development of a person from a non believer to a real disciple baptised with the Holy Spirit and the last two deals with extraordinary gifts. The analysis will therefore be done in relation to the last two books.

        In the book Ånd og Ild Hedegaard deals extensively with the gift of tongues, how to get it and how the Christian benefits from it. In the last book Sejr over Dæmoner Hedegaard explains the work of demons, how they sneak in on people, how they can be resisted and driven away and finally how the Christian and the Christian congregation should handle them.

        The following list shows how many times the different gifts have been identified as active in the ministry of Hedegaard according to the two books chosen for this analysis:

Spiritual Gifts

Ånd og Ild

Sejr over Dæmoner













Casting out demons



Raising of the dead




Just as I described how the Vineyard Christian Fellowship uses the spiritual gifts, I will now do the same in relation to Evangelist.

        For Hedegaard speaking in tongues is firmly connected to the baptism of the Holy Spirit. The process is generally depicted as follows: Hands are laid on someone who is then prayed for, hereafter the Holy Spirit fills the person and as a result he or she immediately speak in tongues.[79] Sometimes this process can be much longer and more complicated. If the person do not know Jesus, they most first be saved to Jesus,[80] and if they are possessed by demons the baptism in the spirit can result in a strong power struggle between the ones praying and the demons, before the demons finally leave. This process of casting out of demons may be associated with various physical manifestations such as vomiting.[81] Sometimes the tongues are accompanied by other gifts like prophesying or healing of sickness.[82]   

        Words of knowledge are by Hedegaard described as knowledge about a person’s sins or problems revealed to another person.[83] The purpose is to give the person in question a chance to repent and be saved.[84]  

        When Hedegaard received his calling he heard God speak clearly to him in his thoughts.[85] Messages or prophecies come mostly as warnings or encouragements; however, they are often coming through another person.[86] Sometimes messages or visions are given to the evangelists during the process of casting out demons; this helps them to command the demons with greater power and precision.[87]

        However the two books do not narrate instances of healing with sufficient detail to make an in-depth analysis as in the instance of Wimber. Hedegaard speaks of a few occasions where he healed people, as when he lead an invalid person to Jesus and afterwards commanded her to walk and she did.[88] A few other healings are mentioned but without detail.[89]

         Casting out demons is described as a real fight, which can include verbal arguments and physical struggle with the demon,[90] and can take quit some time.[91] The weapons seem to be spiritual things like speaking in tongues, commands, prayer, singing, visions or reciting of bible texts.[92] It is noteworthy that the released person often speaks in tongues just after the casting out.[93] Furthermore people and houses can be released or cleansed from demons.[94]

        Concerning the raising of the dead, Hedegaard only mentions that he tried to raise his mother in-law, but without any success. Afterwards he thought he should have been more persistent in prayer.

        It is already mentioned that speaking in tongues is seen as a sign following baptism in the Holy Spirit, what is still to be considered is the process itself. Hedegaard is explaining in depth how he is helping people to speak in tongues. The main theme is that you most be willing to try and to train yourself. Thus the word training is central to his teachings.[95] The main problem is found in the human brain, which needs to be disconnected or turned of before the spirit can do its work.[96] The remaining gifts come either straight from God or as a result of laying on of hands.

        From reading Hedegaard’s teaching I have deducted the following statements: A converted Christian born in the Spirit does not speak in tongues, but only after the special baptism in the Holy Spirit will this gift be manifested.[97] There are two types of tongues. First the personal gift given as a sign of the baptism in the Holy Spirit, and then the gift of tongues meant for congregational use.[98] Christians today must be filled just as they were filled at Pentecost, and as a result they will speak in tongues, heal the sick and drive out the demons.[99] Thus the Christians receive authority to rule over the devil.[100] In his emphasis on healing and casting out of demons Hedegaard connects forgiveness of sins and the healing of the sick.[101] Interestingly Hedegaard says that speaking in tongues helps him to discern the spirits.[102] It seems to act as a spiritual charging device.[103]

 A comparison of the teaching /practice of Wimber and Hedegaard

        Wimber directly claims that he has authority to do the works of Jesus and[104] Hedegaard claim to have been given the baptism of Pentecost, just as the first Apostles. Both are seeing evangelism as a fight against the devil, where they are given authority to heal the sick and cast out demons. Wimber even includes nature in the domain over which he holds authority and Hedegaard claims that Christians are given authority together with Christ to rule over the devil.[105]

        Even though only Hedegaard emphasises the gift of personal tongues, there is clearly a fundamental agreement between the teachings and practices of Hedegaard and Wimber.

Both recognises the tongues as a kind of spiritual antenna, useful when ever they are faced with a challenging task in terms of healing or casting out demons.[106]

        In relation to words of knowledge there is full agreement. It is often private intimate information revealed to the evangelist, so that he can be more convincing in his attempt to help or convert the sinner.

        Both Wimber and Hedegaard claims, that God has spoken to them.[107] Furthermore they both see messages and prophecy as Gods way of communicating to humans. Sometimes the message comes straight to the beneficiary and at times it comes through another person. The message can be for rebuke, encouragement or as assistance during the process of casting out of demons.

        Furthermore both Wimber and Hedegaard insist that it is part of a Christian’s duty to heal and cast out demons. There is also common ground in relation to the process of receiving gifts, both uses the process of laying on of hands and prayer. The interesting part is that both are also emphasising training as a major component in using gifts. Wimber trains people for healing prayer and Hedegaard trains people in tongues.

        It is safe to say, that both insist that the gospel must not only be preached but must also be demonstrated in power. In practice they both teach, that Christ’s death provided for both forgiveness and healing. This is a major premise for their teaching and practice.

        This comparison shows that Hedegaard in many ways are following the practices and beliefs of the Third Wave Charismatics, initiated by Wimber.

Definition of major gifts, methods and calling

After comparing the two evangelists I will now define more precisely how Wimber understood gifts like wisdom, knowledge and discernment of spirits. Concerning the gift of healing or casting out of spirits I will try to describe the processes they follow. Finally I will go deeper in his view on healing and how they are commissioned. Because Wimber usually expresses himself in more depth theologically than Hedegaard, this part will mainly depend on his writings.

        Since healing for Wimber or Hedegaard seems to be a process to be mastered, I will begin by defining some of the other “gracelets”[108] which are useful during the healing process.

        For Wimber a word of wisdom ‘is God revealing his wisdom or insight into a specific situation.’[109] This revelation often comes together with a biblical text and is useful in counselling situations.

        A word of knowledge ‘is God revealing facts’….’giving someone exact details of a person’s life, to reveal sin, warn and provide safety, reveal thoughts, provide healing, or provide instructions.’[110] In short it is God revealing very intimate personal details from another person’s life, for the purpose of helping that person.

        The gift of discernment of the spirits is for Wimber the capacity to see what kind of spirit a person is motivated by. With other words it is the capacity to see, who is in control of a persons heart.[111]

        Describing the gift of healing is more complicated, therefore I will do it in three steps. First I will describe the practices a healer must master; secondly I will define what healing is according to Wimber and lastly I will describe the process of healing itself.

        Wimber connects the practices used during healing to hearing, seeing, speaking and touching.[112] Hearing means, that you are sensitive to Gods voice,[113] when he gives you insights into the sick person’s problems thus guiding you through the process. Seeing is the capacity to recognise when and how the Holy Spirit is working in a person; it might be manifested through any kind of physical or emotional phenomena, which the healer can learn to read thus enabling him to work with God.[114] Speaking is first of all the ability to speak lovingly and encouraging to the sick, but it is also linked to the understanding of different approaches to the healing process. Healing might come through a command, a declaration or a petition.[115] Concerning touching Wimber does not explain in details, he only refers to the practices of Jesus, which he follows. Touching is practised for healing, ordaining, commissioning and imparting of spiritual gifts.[116]

        After this description of the requirements for successful healing, we will now look at Wimber’s definition of divine healing, which includes:[117]

  • Forgiveness of sin
  • Restoration from sickness
  • Freedom from poverty and social injustice
  • Deliverance from any demonic influence
  • Raising the dead

It is clear that Wimber is thinking about both inner and outward healing; for him healing is for both heart and body. Wimber often refer to healing or casting out of demons as part of the same process as repentance and forgiveness.[118] This process is often referred to as either conversion or healing therapy.[119] According to Wimber one of the most conducive places for the process of healing or conversion is within a worship service, which is often conducted like this:[120]

  • Worship to God responding to his love
  • A small speech and exhortation
  • The Holy Spirit ministers to the congregation
  • Prayer for the sick by prayer teams

This system actually puts the prayer team between God and the sick or the sinner, as they interced on their behalf.[121] Thus Wimber emphasises the intercessory function of the prayer team or person.

        For Wimber healing takes place in five steps:

1) First an interview clarifying what kind of help the needy person is seeking.

2) Secondly God assist the teacher to make the diagnosis, which in turn determines the kind of prayer needed for effective healing. Often sin or bad relationships are the real root cause for sickness. When the cause is dealt with healing can take place.

3) The prayer selection is the part were it is decided what kind of prayer is needed. It can be a prayer directed to God, an intercessory prayer where the healer stand between God and the needy person.[122] It can also be a word from God in form of a command or a pronouncement. These words are not formed by the healer himself, they just burst out of him.[123]

4) The prayer engagement is the step where all the practices of hearing, seeing, speaking and touching come into function.[124] When the right environment for healing is present and the patient is emotionally prepared for it, healing can happen.[125] Wimber is obviously not saying it, but his description is coming close to what could be call hypnosis.

5) The final step includes the pastoral care a person needs to remain in good standing with God and his or her fellow humans, and thus retain spiritual, physical and social healing.

        The picture arising is, that most gifts are given with the purpose to assist the processes of inner and outward healing. In this way the healing as part of evangelisation is given a great deal of attention by Wimber.

        Wimber makes it clear that God has authorised us to heal the sick as well as to preach the gospel.[126] In other words we are given the authority to do the works of Jesus.[127] The equipping for this work has two aspects for Wimber, first of all someone having the gift can pray for you, and pass it on to you;[128] secondly it is something which you learn just like you learn to ride a bicycle.[129] In reality Wimber makes it clear that we are given power to fight the enemy, to proclaim the gospel and to do signs and wonders. Hedegaard has the same fundamental belief, when he teaches that we will receive the same blessing as the disciples did on the day of Pentecost.[130]

        To be able to heal as Wimber describes it, you most have at least four or five of the nine gifts mentioned in I Cor 12, this also agrees nicely with Hedegaard’s philosophy that we should seek to get all nine gifts.[131]

          In summary:

1) Both believe that Christians are given the authority to do the works of Jesus or the apostles. [132]

2) Both believe that all Christians can receive/learn to practice the same gifts as the disciples, which means that they can be equipped like the apostles through a baptism like the one at Pentecost.[133]

 This giftedness will manifest it self as follows:

  • The authority of healing, including healing of both heart and body.
  • The capacity to receive revelations, including words of wisdom and knowledge, and the discernment of spirits.
  • The authority to mediate, including being an intercessor between the sick (sinner) and God through the conversion/healing therapy, and also being a channel transferring gifts to others.

 An Analysis of the Apostolic Authority and Spiritual Gifts in relation to the

calling and ministry of the Apostles

Analysis of text

In order to assess the claims of Wimber’s and Hedegaard’s understanding of the apostolic authority and gifts which they claim to have received in a Pentecostal like baptism, the biblical text from John 13. 31 to John 17. 26 and Acts 1. 1 to 2. 47 will be analysed to provide a critical comparative perspective.

        The analysis will proceed in three steps, first it will summarise the text and extract the overall message, secondly it will exegete more important passages, and lastly it will define the key points concerning the authority and giftedness of the disciples.

        Our narrative begins in the context of the last supper just after Judas left the group. The events described from John 13. 31 to John 17. 26 are presented as taking place between Jesus and the eleven remaining disciples, in the upper room and on their way to the valley of Kidron.[134] As they walk Jesus is informing/encouraging his friends and giving them promises regarding the future. His first message is that he will soon leave them, and that they shall love each other.[135]

        To this injunction he added that he would go to his Father, prepare a place for them and then come back and bring them home.[136]

        Having given these injunctions Jesus then concentrated on the period between his going and coming again. The speech of Jesus was directly addressing the kind of future the disciples would face without his visible presence and what he would do for them in his absence. Firstly he promised them that believers in him would do greater things than he had done, if they believed in him.[137]

        Jesus also promised that anybody loving him, and therefore keeping his word would have his presence in the form of the Holy Spirit.[138]

        In the same line Jesus promised his disciples the presence of the Holy Spirit as a helper after his ascension, he said: ‘But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind you of all that I have said to you.’[139] This seems to be a promise specifically directed to the disciples.

        As Jesus and the disciples walked from the upper room to the valley of Kidron,[140] he further instructs them regarding the secret of spiritual life by staying connected with him like the branches to a vine.[141]

        This is the context in which Jesus really begins to instruct his disciples concerning their future mission. He said: ‘When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.  And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning.’[142] This text introduces a narrative that is specifically addressed to the eleven disciples regarding their role as eyewitnesses to Jesus.

        Having stated their mission as eyewitnesses Jesus continued his instruction of them, telling them how he would equip them for the task. Through work of the Spirit he would persuade the world, guide the disciples into the truth, reveal the future and God’s secrets to them. This promise complemented his previous promise in John 14. 26 that the spirit would remind them of all that he had said to them. Thus these promises are given directly to the apostles regarding their future roles as witnesses to Jesus.

        In chapter seventeen Jesus finishes his promise by praying for himself, for his disciples and for all coming believers. In verse twenty he actually stresses the foundational role of witness of the apostles and thus this promise to the disciples is clearly connected to the first two chapters of Acts.  

        During forty days Jesus encouraged the disciples and repeated his promise in regard to the Holy Spirit. Finally he told them clearly: ‘Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about.’[143] This is a clear repetition of Jesus promise to his disciples. Acts 1. 3 – 8 not only thematically but also specifically links back to the promise in the gospel of John, thus indicating that Pentecost would be the event, when these promises to the disciples would materialize in the experience empowering them to be witnesses of Jesus.

        Acts 2. 1-13 narrate what happened at Pentecost, when the disciples were filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke in different languages according to what the Spirit gave them to speak. Then Peter gave a persuasive testimony convincing a large crowd that Jesus was the Messiah. At that moment Peter was clearly equipped to tell the story, as seen in Acts 2. 37-47. Many asked what to do, and Peter told them to repent and be baptized, then they would get the Spirit as a gift. Three thousand responded.

        Finally the last part of the text tells us how this new church lived, and the role of the apostles teaching about Jesus. This overview seems to indicate that these promises were directed to the twelve as eyewitnesses to Jesus.

        In order to more fully assess the nature and implications of these promises the following texts need detailed exegesis:         

        1) John 14. 26.  But the Advocate (para,klhtoj),[144] the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind (u`pomnh,sei) you of all that I have said to you.[145]

        Here Jesus seems to promise his disciples, that the Holy Spirit will teach them everything they will need to know, and bring back to their remembrance everything he had taught. The fact that this verse includes remembrance of things Jesus spoke to his disciples seems to limit this promise to his disciples only.

        2) John 15. 15. I no longer call you servants (dou,louj),[146] because a servant does not know his master's business. Instead, I have called you friends (fi,louj),[147] for everything that I learned (h;kousa)[148] from my Father I have made known to you (evgnw,risa).[149]

        This basically seems to imply that Jesus saw his disciples as his partners, and that he would tell them everything the Father had reveled to him.

        3) John 16. 13. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide (o`dhgh,sei) you into all the truth;[150] for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears (avkou,sei),[151] and he will declare (avnaggelei)/ to you the things that are to come.[152]

        Here Jesus promises his disciples that after his ascension the Holy Spirit will help them to understand all the truth, and reveal to them what events were still to take place. Truth can in relation to John 14. 6 be seen as ‘the facts taught in the Christian religion concerning God and the execution of His purposes through Christ.’[153]

      4) John 17.20. "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through (dia). their word,[154] This text implies that the first apostles had a special status as channels or tools used by Jesus in his effort to reach out to the world after his ascension. They seem to have foundational and revelational authority, thus being channels through whom Christ reveals himself to the world.

        5) Acts 1. 8. But you will receive power (du,naming) when the Holy Spirit has come upon you;[155] and you will be my witnesses (ma,rturej) in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth."[156]

        The fact that the Holy Spirit was the one to bring about the power seems to imply that the power was supernatural. The idea seems to be that they would receive the ability or power needed to witness about Jesus being the way, the truth and the life. Here it might be important to notice, that the first apostles were able to witness about things they had really seen and heard. Thus this seems to be the direct fulfillment of the Johanine promise, that he would remind them about all they had heard.

        6) Acts 2.4. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other (e`te,raij) languages (glw,ssaij),[157] as the Spirit gave them ability (avpofqe,ggesqai).[158]

       Considering the context, the disciples seem to have got a gift of speaking in different languages, for the purpose of spreading the gospel to all the pilgrims whom had come to Jerusalem.[159] Further realizing that the disciples had already received the Holy Spirit it seems that they were now receiving the task of prophets.[160] The conclusion is that they were not only receiving the gift of tongues, they were also receiving a message.[161]

        7) Acts 2. 14-36. In this narrative we have Peters first public speech; as it is not straight forward written what kind of gifts the Holy Spirit gave Peter in order to accomplish the task, we will have to compare this new Peter with the old Peter, who had followed Jesus for three years.

        Peter’s entry into ministry:[162] Peter raised his voice and talked to the public on behalf of all the apostles. This does not resemble the fearful Peter rejecting his Master three times during one night.[163] It is clear that the Holy Spirit gave Peter conviction and courage instead of fear.

        Peter’s first speech:[164] Peter explained that the speaking in different tongues was a fulfilment of Joel’s prophecy.[165] By doing so he began his speech in one of the OT prophecies and was therefore building confidence in his listeners. After that Peter pursues his goal in the following lines of argument:

  • God clearly identified Jesus for the Jews through ‘deeds of power, wonders, and signs’[166]
  • Looking at his congregation Peter declared they had killed this Jesus.[167]
  • Then Peter declared that God raised Jesus again from the dead.[168]
  • Pointing to Psalm 16 Peter explained how David had foreseen that Jesus would not remain in the grave long enough to rot.[169]
  • Then Peter declares that he and his fellow apostles were witnesses to Jesus resurrection.[170]
  • Pointing this time to Psalm 110 Peter claimed that Jesus was at the throne of God, and had just sent the Holy Spirit. Making the wonders the crowd had just experienced.[171]
  • Driving his point home Peter declares that Jesus was the Messiah the anointed one.[172]

        Seeing the coherent structure and purpose in Peter’s speech, it becomes clear that he suddenly understood all the old prophecies in relation to Christ’s life, death and resurrection. He was now able to tell the full redemption story. This indicates a great change in Peter; ten days earlier at the day of Jesus ascension he and the other apostles did not understand the meaning of Jesus mission.[173] This seems clearly to imply that the Holy Spirit revealed knowledge and wisdom to Peter. Knowledge and wisdom in relation to ancient Jewish history related in the OT, Jesus life, death and resurrection, and the future as Jesus had promised.

        8)  Acts 2. 42, 43.  They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching (didach)/| and fellowship,[174] to the breaking of bread and the prayers. Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders (te,rata) and signs (shmei/a) were being done by the apostles.[175]

        This gives the impression that the new church was following the teaching and doctrines which the Holy Spirit had revealed through the apostles. In addition the apostles seem to have performed a number of signs and wonders to encourage the young church. Miracles and exorcism were however not new to the disciples, they had performed them ever since they became Jesus’ disciples.

 Apostolic Authority

The exegesis of these texts reveals the following interesting elements concerning apostolic authority. John 15. 15 makes clear that Jesus told the disciples everything he knew from the father, and John 16. 13 add that the Holy Spirit would lead them to understand it all. In addition they would receive revelations, as for example when John wrote the book of Revelation. This promises given in John seems to be confirmed in Acts 2. 42 narrating how the new church lived by the teaching and doctrines of the apostles. Therefore the line of communication seems clear, whatever Jesus knew he had from the Father, and he gave it to the disciples, who gave it to the church, who preserved it in writing.

 Spiritual Gifts

The gifts of knowledge and wisdom needed for witness seems to be prominent. In John chapter 14, 15 and 16 Jesus promises his disciples knowledge and wisdom in relation to the gospel story of which they were to be witnesses. Peter’s speech demonstrates the fulfillment of these promises. Knowledge seems to be knowledge about the OT, Jesus life, his death, his resurrection and revealed future. Wisdom seems to be the ability to understand it and communicate it to others.

        The first disciples also got the gift of speaking in different languages, and it is clear that the purpose was to evangelize all the people gathered in Jerusalem. Together with the tongues the disciples also received a message and the ability to deliver it.

        The focus in the gospel of John is on the power of the Spirit to convict, to enlighten, to reveal, to remind and empower the disciples to be effective witnesses for Jesus. The effect was immediate; on the day of Pentecost they received the empowering needed to tell a story that was coherent, true and convincing. The focus on giftedness was on the ability to tell the story and the ability to communicate divine truth to the world.

A comparison between the theology of Wimber and Hedegaard,

and the findings in the biblical text.

The last bit is now to compare the conclusion on Wimber and Hedegaard with the data from the biblical text.

        The first claim of Hedegaard and Wimber was that Christians are given the same authority as Jesus and the apostles, and therefore they are able to do what Jesus did. However realising the unique role of the first disciples, as they guided by the Holy Spirit began to communicate in speech or writing all that Jesus had taught them, one need to critically question such claims. The possibility that they had a unique place in the biblical story line must be considered. The promise in John’s gospel seems to explicitly promise revelational authority to the apostles. Firstly the ability to recall his teachings, secondly receiving insight into the mysteries of God, and thirdly to be recipients of revelations of future things. The early Christian community apparently recognised this privilege as they clinged to their teachings as inspired. If everybody had that privilege of direct access, why should they then have depended on the teachings of the apostles.

        The second claim was that through a Pentecostal like baptism we can learn or receive the same abilities and gifts as the disciples. The first comment most be that the gift of healing the physically sick, seems to have nothing to do with the Pentecostal baptism, the disciples were given that ability during their early walk with Jesus. Looking at the element of learning, it is striking that the disciples Jesus left behind at the day of ascension, were still not capable of mission work. Ten days later the apostles suddenly had the abilities needed for witnessing; hence indicating that it was not a learning process, but a gift from the Holy Spirit which had transformed them. This certainly contradicts with Wimber’s idea that we can learn to use divine powers. The Biblical texts rather seem to indicate, that the Holy Spirit can decide to use us, if we are willing.    

        Concerning the gifts, the claim was that Christian ministry should always include healing of heart and body. This idea does not arise from the story of Pentecost where the emphasis was solely on salvation from sin, not from physical sickness. Through out the book of Acts we meet occasional healings, but converting people was always the core activity. The idea that Jesus’ dead on the cross secures not only present forgiveness, but also present healing from sickness and cure for social problems; in short the idea that a genuine Christian will become holy, healthy and wealthy, seem difficult to sustain on NT ground.[176]

        Thirdly they claim that we should receive special revelations like words of knowledge and wisdom, plus the discernment of spirits. Looking at the knowledge and wisdom Peter and the disciples received for the purpose of proclamation of the gospel is clearly seen, that it was very different from the gifts of knowledge and wisdom claimed in the third wave. Peter gained knowledge and wisdom about the truth of salvation; in the third wave they gain knowledge and wisdom about people’s sins and weaknesses. When third wavers experience that they receive certain strange and intimate messages about others, they seem to identify it with what the Bible call gifts of wisdom and knowledge. While such revelations are known in scripture it is hard to identify it with the apostolic teachings on the subject. It seems certain that it does not resemble the wisdom and knowledge spoken of concerning Solomon. Paul appears to see such gifts as essential for the role of teaching, preaching etc. Commenting on the gift of discernment of the spirits, it is clear from scripture that Peter and the other apostles could clearly see the difference between Gods work and the devils work.[177] Wimber and Hedegaard claim that this same gift helps them to differentiate between different demons. It might be pertinent to ask, if this is really the same gift as the one Paul speaks about. Finally it is worthwhile to mention that Wimber and Hedegaard contrary to the explicit Pauline teaching proclaim that Christians should strive to get all nine gifts, so that they can effectively mediate between the needy and God through what Wimber calls conversion/healing therapy or the integrated model of healing.[178]

        Fourthly the claim was that we are mediators between God and sinners, and that we can be channels transferring gifts to others. The fact that the disciples witnessed and baptized three thousand people in one day, indicates that there is no need of a third wave type of mediator between God and the sinner. The complicated and time consuming mediation, which is practiced within third wavers are very different of what the narrative of Pentecost relates. Looking at the channeling of gifts on the day of Pentecost, it most be realized, that God send his Spirit straight to the receiver, which was also the case when Peter visited Cornelius in Caesarea, where the Spirit came straight to even heathens.[179] This is at least assuring us, that God is not dependent on the method of laying on of hands, which both Wimber and Hedegaard are seeing as the means of transferring both good and evil from one person to another       

        This study seems to have exposed, that some of the manifestations and the way they operate within the third wave are difficult to harmonize with the biblical picture in the gospel of John, Acts and the wider Pauline corpus. How can they be a genuine expression of Christian charismata, if they are not agreeing with the apostolic teaching? If they are not genuine, how is it then possible to distinguish? Even if the answer to this question is not the main focus of this paper, it seems that there is a major difference in the nature and process of a miracle performed in the third wave and one done by Jesus or the apostles. In the third wave the Spirit often reveals who need healing and for what problem, during the time of Jesus, the needy approached Jesus themselves.

        As one analyze Wimber and Hedegaard, and read some of their critics some disturbing elements can be observed. The kind of revelation they claim to receive, gives them an authority over their fellow Christians which seems unacceptable.[180]

        Another disturbing factor is their emphasis not only on redemption from sins, but the complete restoration from sickness and social problems. This seems to compromise the biblical teaching on glorification as a ‘not yet’. Thus creating expectations God has not promised to honor in the ‘already’: So if a person does not experience sinlessness, healing and social success it is his or her own fault. That also leaves very little recognition to the fact, that God might have his purposes behind many of the challenges meeting humanity.[181]

        Finally it is worthwhile to recognize the way Wimber is measuring doctrine with experience, and not the other way around. His approach is pragmatic and experimental as he stated that he arrived at his integrated model of conversion and healing therapy by trails and error.[182] It seems that his key theological teachings are not based on biblical theology but on experience. That is a purely empirical approach to the spiritual manifestations.


        It is clear that Wimber and Hedegaard have moved away from Wesley’s view on the salvation process, claiming that Jesus death assures us not only holiness, but also health and wealth here and now.

        The research also confirms, that Wimber and Hedegaard really claim that they have the same authority as the apostles. It furthermore reveals that they believe that all Christians can learn or receive all the Spiritual gifts, and use them in the process of converting/healing anybody under spirit guidance. They see mission mainly as a war between good and evil, between Christians and demons, and claim that they have been given the power to deliver from the rule of Satan.

The text in John and Acts points to a special revelational authority given to the apostles, a fact recognized throughout the NT, which is not to be replicated today. If one has not seen or heard Jesus alive, then one can not become a first hand witness to his teaching, death and resurrection. The real problem appears to be with the authority claimed by the anointed persons. They tend to claim revelational authority and that they have the ability through intercessory prayer to bring people to God and God’s spirit to people, that is meditorial authority; all confirmed by signs and wonders especially healing and transmissions of the spirit and its powerful manifestations.    

        Therefore apostolic authority, practice and giftedness claimed within the Third Wave Charismatics seem very questionable, as it is not necessarily a re-manifestation of the events at Pentecost. Furthermore a big question mark looms over the trail and error method used in formulating theology and healing practices. There seems to be a complete abandonment of any objective criteria – all is resting on self validating subjectivity of experience.        

        Finally it appears that what they experience is suspiciously different from what the first apostles experienced. Therefore it is reasonable to question the assertion that they represent a restored apostolic ministry, which in turn raises new questions regarding the nature of the Third “Wave” Phenomena. Questions which would be worth while addressing in another research.



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Dayton, W. Donald, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism, (NJ: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987)


Duffield, Guy P. and Nathaniel M. Van Cleave, Foundations of Pentecostal Theology,

        (CA: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983)


Dieter, Melvin Easterday, The Holiness Revival Of The Nineteenth Century,

        (London: The Scarecrow Press, 1980)


Encyclopædia Britannica, 24 vols, (London: William Benton, 1973), XV,301-306


Hedegaard, Christian, Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri,

        (Denmark: Christian Hedegaard, 2000)


Hedegaard, Christian, Ånd &Ild (Spirit and fire) (Denmark: Evangelist, 2005)


Hedegaard, Christian, Manden med Vandkrukken (The man with the water jar)

        (Denmark: Aponet, 2003)


Hiebert, Paul G., ‘Healing and the Kingdom’,

       <http://www.deceptioninthechurch.com/hiebert.html> @accessed 1 March 2007#


Larvik, Roar, ‘Kritisk vurdering af Christian Hedegaards teologi’,

       <http://www.dci.dk/?artikel01234&emne0Christian Hedegaard> @accessed 1 March 2007#


Paulsen, Jan, When the Spirit Descends; Understanding the Role of the Holy Spirit

        (MD: Review and Herald, 2001)


Randels, Bill, ‘The Roots: John Wimber and the Vineyard’,

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Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary, ed. by Francis D. Nichol, 7vols

        (WA: Review and Herald, 1980), VI


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         rev. by John R. Kohlenberger III and James A. Swanson, (MI: Zondervan, 2001)


Synan, Vinson, The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Revewal:

        How God used a handful of Christians to spark a worldwide movement,

        (TN: Thomas Nelson, 2001)


Synan, Vinson, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth

        Century, (Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans, 1997)


Wimber, John with Kevin Springer, Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders

        (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1985)


Wimber, John with Kevin Springer, Power Healing (NY: Harper Collins, 1987)


Wimber, John with Kevin Springer, The Dynamics of Spiritual Growth

        (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1990)


Wimber, John, The Way In is the Way On; John Wimber’s teachings and writings on life in Christ

        (GA: ampelon, 2006)




[1] The author is especially thinking about the conflict related to the CaféChurch project in Copenhagen. Other areas or other Church denominations might have similar problems.

[2] John Wimber was founder of the Vineyard Fellowship in America and Christian Hedegaard is the leader of the cross-churchly mission organisation in Denmark called Evangelist

[3] Encyclopædia Britannica, 24 vols, (London: William Benton, 1973), XV, 302 Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century, (Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans, 1997)

[4] Christianity: The Complete Guide, ed. by John Bowden (London: Continuum, 2005), p. 736 Christianity: The Complete Guide, p. 738

[5] Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 304

[6] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 7

[7] Christianity: The Complete Guide, p. 575

Vinson Synan, The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Revewal:

        How God used a handful of Christians to spark a worldwide movement, (TN: Thomas Nelson, 2001), p. 168

Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival Of The Nineteenth Century, (London: The Scarecrow Press, 1980), p. 61

[8] The Holiness Revival Of The Nineteenth Century, p. 62

        The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 17

[9] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 41

[10] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 55

[11] The Century of the Holy Spirit, p. 1

[12] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 93

        The Century of the Holy Spirit, p. 51

[13] The Century of the Holy Spirit, p. 8

[14] The Century of the Holy Spirit, p. 9

[15] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 2

        Christianity: The Complete Guide, p. 1264  

[16] The Holiness Revival Of The Nineteenth Century, p. 61

        Dayton, W. Donald, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism, (NJ: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987), p. 37

[17] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 7

[18] The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism, p. 49

[19] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 15, 17

[20] The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism, p. 18

        Christianity: The Complete Guide, p. 911   

[21] Christianity: The Complete Guide, p. 911          

[22] The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism, pp. 41-45

[23] The Century of the Holy Spirit, p. 3

[24] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, pp. 97-101

[25] The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 192

[26] John Wimber, with Kevin Springer, Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders

         (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1985), p. 12

[27] John Wimber, with Kevin Springer, Power Healing (NY: Harper Collins, 1987), p. 47

[28] On pages 27, 59, 117

[29] On pages 4, 31

[30] On pages 8, 10, 11, 28, 66, 75, 83, 111, 117, 175,

[31] On pages 25, 71, 147, 185

[32] On pages 66, 90

[33] On pages 34, 45, 48, 49, 52, 131, 144, 145, 162, 165

[34] On pages 55, 56, 92, 117, 177

[35] On pages 32, 78, 144, 145, 147, 162, 185, 196, 205,

[36] On pages 51, 169, 175

[37] On pages 115, 231

[38] On pages 183-185

[39] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders. p. 27

[40] Power Healing, p. 31

[41] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 117

[42] Power Healing, p. 207

[43] Power Healing, p. 25

[44] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 28

[45] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 175

        Power Healing, p. 71

[46] Power Healing, p. 185

[47] Power Healing, p. 47

[48] Power Healing, p. 144

[49] Power Healing, p. 131

[50] Power Healing, p. 45

[51] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 66

[52] Power Healing, p. 207

[53] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 56

[54] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 177

[55] Power Healing, p. 185

[56]Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 169

[57] Power Healing, p. 198

[58] Power Healing, p. 136

[59] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 195

[60] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 192

[61] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 28

[62] Power Healing, p. 192

[63] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 174

[64] Power Healing, p. 101

[65] Power Healing, p. 38

[66] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 39 and 178

[67] Power Healing, p. 207

[68] The Man with the Water Jar

[69] Spirit and Fire

[70] Victory over Demons

[71] On pages 10, 11, 13, 21, 24, 25, 52, 68

[72] On pages 131, 132

[73] On pages 17, 20, 31, 72, 76, 134

[74] On pages 68

[75] On pages 15, 22, 30, 98, 107, 131

[76] On pages 11, 12, 72

[77] On gages 21, 69

[78] On pages 25, 26, 33, 46, 67, 123, 131, 132, 138, 139, 143

[79] Christian Hedegaard, Ånd &Ild (Spirit and fire) (Denmark: Evangelist, 2005), p. 13

[80] Ånd &Ild, p. 21

[81] Christian Hedegaard, Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri,

        (Denmark: Christian Hedegaard, 2000), p. 131

[82] Ånd &Ild, p. 11 and 68

[83] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 31

[84] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 76 and 134

[85] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 22

[86] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 107

[87] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 131

[88] Ånd &Ild, p. 11

[89] Ånd &Ild, p. 12, 69, 72

[90] Ånd &Ild, p. 132

[91] Ånd &Ild, p. 46

[92] Ånd &Ild, p. 143

[93] Ånd &Ild, p. 132  

[94] Ånd &Ild, p. 67  

[95] Ånd &Ild, p.32  

[96] Ånd &Ild, p.30  

[97] Ånd &Ild, p.39  

[98] Ånd &Ild, p.75  

[99] Ånd &Ild, p.5 and 23

[100] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 42

[101] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 140

[102]Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 127

[103] Ånd &Ild, p.58

[104] Power Healing, p. 174

[105] Ånd &Ild, p.42

[106] Ånd &Ild, p.58

        Power Healing, p. 207

[107] Sejr Over Dæmoner: at blive fri: at sætte fri, p. 22

Power Healing, p. 49

[108] Wimber’s term for gifts

[109] Power Healing, p. 193

[110] Power Healing, p. 193

[111] Power Healing, p. 193

[112] Power Healing, p. 180

[113] Power Healing, p. 180

[114] Power Healing, p. 181

[115] Power Healing, p. 182

[116] Power Healing, p. 184

[117] Power Healing, p. 38

[118] Power Healing, p. 200 and 234

[119] Power Healing, p. 92

[120] Power Healing, p. 175

[121] Power Healing, p. 207

[122] Power Healing, p. 207

[123] Power Healing, p. 208

[124] Power Healing, p. 211

[125] Power Healing, p. 174

[126] Power Healing, p. 48

[127] Power Evangelism; Signs and Wonders, p. 174

[128] Power Healing, p. 192

[129] Power Healing, p. 176

[130] Ånd &Ild, p. 5

[131] Ånd &Ild, p. 75

[132] Power Healing, p. 174

        Ånd &Ild, p. 23

[133] Point 7 in Vineyard’s doctrinal statements:

        We believe that the Holy Spirtit was poured out on the Church at Pentecost in power baptizing believers into the

        Body of Christ and releasing the gifts of the Spirit to them. The Spirit brings the permanent indwelling presence of

        God to us for spiritual worship, personal sanctification, building up the Church, gifting us for ministry, and driving

        back the kingdom of Satan by the evangelization of the world through proclaiming the word of Jesus and doing the

        works of Jesus.

        Ånd &Ild, p. 23

[134] John 18. 1

[135] John 13. 31-35

[136] John 14. 1-3

[137] John 14. 4-14

[138] John 14. 15-24

[139] John 14. 26

[140] John 14. 31 and John 18. 1

[141] John 15. 1-8

[142] John 15. 26, 27

[143] Acts 1. 4b

[144] The word para,klhtoj literally meaning ‘one called to the side of’ was translated Advocate by the Latin fathers,

        Strong renders words like intercessor, consoler, advocate or comforter, but it could also make sense to use words

        like exhorter or teacher.

Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary, ed. by Francis D. Nichol, 7vols

        (WA: Review and Herald, 1980), V, p. 1037

[145] The word u`pomnh,sei is most frequently translated with the meaning ‘bring to remembrance’.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1650

[146] The word dou,louj meaning slave or servant is here most likely meaning voluntary servant.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1603  

[147] The word fi,louj is often translated friend, but can also mean associate.

[148] The word h;kousa has the meanings to hear, pay attention, understand or obey.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1589  

[149] The word evgnw,risa has the meanings to make known, tell, reveal, declare and give to understand.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1600  

[150] The word o`dhgh,sei has the meanings to lead, guide, explain and instruct.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1630

[151] We have already in relation to John 15. 15 examined the meaning of the stem of avkou,sei and defined the meaning as

        to hear, pay attention, understand or obey.

[152] The word avnaggelei have the meanings to tell, report, announce, shew and declare.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1590  

[153] Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary,V, p. 989

[154] dia a primary preposition here used in genitive with the meanings through or by means of.

[155] The word du,naming has the meaning ability or power, which can be taken both literally or figuratively.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1604

[156] The word ma,rturej has the meanings witness, testimony or martyr.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1625  

[157] For e`te,raij glw,ssaij Strong gives the following meanings, other, different, altered and strange languages or


James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1599 and 1612  

[158] The word avpofqe,ggesqai means to say, speak out, address, declare, speak forth and utterance.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1595  

[159] Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary, ed. by Francis D. Nichol, 7vols

        (WA: Review and Herald, 1980), VI, p. 137

[160] John 20. 22 and II Peter 1. 21

[161] Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary, VI, p. 137

[162] Acts 2. 14, 15

[163] Luke 22

[164] Acts 2. 16-36

[165] Joel 3. 1-5

[166] Acts 2. 22

[167] Acts 2. 23

[168] Acts 2. 24

[169] Acts 2. 25-31

[170] Acts 2. 32

[171] Acts 2. 33-35

[172] Acts 2. 36

[173] Acts 1. 6

[174] The word didach mean either teaching/instruction or the content of it (doctrine).

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1602   

[175] The word te,rata mean wonder/miracle, by implication given as a sign.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1648  

The word shmei/a mean sign, signal, mark, miracle and token.

James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s: Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, p. 1642  

[176] Is 33. 16

[177] Acts 16. 16

[178] ICor 12

[179] Acts 10

[180] Roar, Larvik, ‘Kritisk vurdering af Christian Hedegaards teologi’,

       <http://www.dci.dk/?artikel01234&emne0Christian Hedegaard> @accessed 1 March 2007], p. 7

[181] Paul G. Hiebert, ‘Healing and the Kingdom’,

       <http://www.deceptioninthechurch.com/hiebert.html> @accessed 1 March 2007#, p. 9

[182] Randels, Bill, ‘The Roots: John Wimber and the Vineyard’,

       <http://www.ondoctrine.com/1wimbe01.htm> @accessed 1 March 2007#, p. 7

Med venlig hilsen

Allan Falk

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